Tag Archives: Type 1 Diabetes

Diabeloop, a medtech firm that automates T1D treatment, presented new real-life results for its DBLG1® System at ATTD2022 in Madrid

PARIS, 28-Apr-2022 — /EPR HEALTHCARE NEWS/ — ATTD 2022 – Diabeloop, pioneer in therapeutic artificial intelligence for diabetes management, presents today new results from a real-life cohort in Germany. The data show a constant improvement in Time In Range (70-180 mg/dL) combined with a significant reduction of hypoglycemia.

DBLG1, Diabeloop’s hybrid closed-loop, showed improvement of Time In Range and reduction of hypoglycemic episodes which allows for better diabetes management and improved quality of life.

Time In Range: a continuous improvement, with even more people equipped

Presented today at ATTD, the latest data from DBLG1¹ real-life cohort demonstrates an increase of 18.4 percentage point in Time In Range (TIR 70-180 mg/dL) on 974 patients.

This significant gain confirms the constant improvement in Time In Range, a key indicator of glucose control, in people living with Type 1 diabetes equipped with DBLG1 System since the WP7² pivotal trial (+12 points), the commercial pre-launch³ (+16.7 points) and the results of the first real-life cohort in Germany4 (+17.1 points).

With several thousand people equipped, Diabeloop’s solution continues to increase the Time In Range and thus improves the associated clinical benefits, such as better glucose control, less complications and improved quality of life.

These significant performances confirm the ability of Diabeloop’s solutions to improve glycemic control of people with T1D, in real-life, in a less controlled environment than in hospital supervised studies.

DBLG1 users in Germany, included in the real-life cohort, benefit from basic support at initialization. This demonstrates the ease of use of Diabeloop’s automated and personalized insulin delivery system and its interface.

Prof. Pierre-Yves Benhamou comments: “From the first study – WP7 which showed an increase in Time In Range of 12 points, to today with +18.4 points following the European commercial launch of DBLG1, the continuous improvement of the TIR is significant. The results observed on the new real-life cohort of nearly 1000 people in Germany are very impactful, with patients with a baseline TIR (70-180 mg/dL) of 54.6% reaching 73% TIR in closed-loop with DBLG1. The other very positive result observed in this cohort is the significant reduction in hypoglycemia”.

A significant reduction of hypoglycemia combined with improvement in TIR

Associated with the increase in TIR, the retrospective data of the real-life DBLG1 cohort show a very significant reduction in time spent in hypoglycemia. Users of DBLG1 whose HbA1c was available at initiation spent only 0.9% of the time below 70 mg/dL and 0.1% of the time below 54 mg/dL5.

This variable has been constantly improving since the real-life WP72 study, which had already demonstrated a halving of the time spent below 70 mg/dL, a gain of more than 30 minutes less spent in hypoglycemia each day. More recently, the first real-life cohort in Germany demonstrated a time spent below 70 mg/dL at 1% and 0.2% below 54 mg/dL(4).

Thus, DBLG1 strongly contributes to reducing the short-term risks associated with hypoglycemia, such as discomfort, dizziness or even life-threatening situations. Diabeloop’s technology, based on artificial intelligence, allows an optimal diabetes management with less glycemic variations responsible for complications, and a life without interruption associated with the chronic disease.

“It is a great satisfaction to see that these new data extracted from an even larger cohort of patients show a simultaneous performance on TIR and reduction of hypoglycemia. Combined with the positive and very concrete feedback from the people equipped, this motivates us to go even further, to address more and more populations affected by diabetes” states Erik Huneker, CEO and co-founder of Diabeloop.

Testimonials: positive impacts in diabetes management, quality of life and mental burden

Since the commercial launch of its first solution in Europe last year, Diabeloop has received numerous feedback on the improvement of diabetes management and clinical benefits.

“I was skeptical about letting my diabetes be controlled by technology. But my diabetologist advised me to try it. My HbA1c dropped from 10% to 7% within two months. DBLG1 has improved my quality of life. I sleep better, I’m fitter, I’m very curious about what the next updates of DBLG1 will bring.” says Martin, living with diabetes for 45 years, equipped in Germany.

“My life has definitely changed with DBLG1. I have much less mental burden. I really noticed that I can have more time for other things and don’t have to concentrate on my diabetes all the time, as long as I take everything responsibly and estimate the carbs of my meals correctly. When I go to parties or some birthdays or other events, I know that DBLG1 always corrects me automatically. I’m really happy!” comments Eva, T1D using DBLG1 in Germany.

“DBLG1 has a “high-fat meal” feature that I use very often, even though I don’t eat that much fat but I don’t eat a lot of carbs either. It allows the delivery of biphasic boluses, adapted to the blood sugar level before meals and it works magically on me to avoid postprandial hyperglycemia!” says Stéphanie, equipped with DBLG1 in France.

Listen to all the testimonials in the first episode of the exclusive podcast Diabeloop Stories on Spotify : https://open.spotify.com/show/3GNcl…

Come and meet the Diabeloop team at ATTD, booth n°34 in the TechFair area.

CEO Erik Huneker and Pr Pierre-Yves Benhamou will present these results at Diabeloop session “AID pipeline perspectives & clinical outcomes” on Thursday, 28th April from 12:10 in the Exhibition Area.

About Diabeloop
Created in 2015, Diabeloop is a high-growth company that offers AI-based, personalized solutions to improve clinical outcomes for people with diabetes while relieving them of their constant mental burden. DBLG1 System, Diabeloop’s first medical device for automated insulin delivery (AID) and DBL-hu, its solution for highly unstable Type 1 diabetes management, are both CE-marked and being deployed in Europe.

A second round of financing of 31 million euros, concluded at the end of 2019, supported the international commercial rollout of DBLG1 iController and Diabeloop’s ambitious R&D program. Today, Diabeloop gathers the personality, passion, and skills of over 160 talented individuals who work hard to improve the quality of life for every person living with diabetes.

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References:

1 Real-life internal data (YourLoops data extract, from September 1, 2021, to December 31, 2021): 974 patients from Germany, who gave consent, equipped with DBLG1 System with Accu-Chek® Insight (Roche) insulin pump, with HbA1c available at initiation.

2 P.Y. Benhamou et al., «Closed-loop insulin delivery in adults with type 1 diabetes in real-life conditions: a 12-week multicentre, open-label randomised controlled crossover trial», The Lancet Digital Health, Vol 1 (1), E17 – E25, 2019. DOI: 10.1016/S2589-7500(19)30003-2

3 C. Amadou et al., «Diabeloop DBLG1 Closed-loop system enables patients with Type 1 diabetes to significantly improve their glycemic control in real-life situations without serious adverse events», Diabetes Care 2021 Jan; dc201809. doi:org/10.2337-dc20-1809

4 Data from 152 patients equipped with DBLG1 System with Accu-Chek® Insight (Roche) insulin pump in Germany from April to September 2021 with available HbA1c at initiation, based on [Beck and al. 2019] equation for hb1Ac <=9% and hb1Ac>=6%”

5 Real-life internal data (YourLoops data extract, from September 1, 2021, to December 31, 2021): 1914 patients from Germany, who gave consent, equipped with DBLG1 System with Accu-Chek® Insight (Roche) insulin pump..

SOURCE: EuropaWire

Diabeloop to integrate insulin pens into its hybrid closed-loop system using a unique app

PARIS, 12-Apr-2022 — /EPR HEALTHCARE NEWS/ — Diabeloop, a pioneer in the field of therapeutic artificial intelligence, leverages the potential of its diabetes technology to enable the integration of insulin pens into its hybrid closed-loop system using a unique app. With DBL-4pen, Diabeloop offers new opportunities for personalized diabetes management for people with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes, further advancing the quality of patient care.

Diabeloop opens a new segment in the insulin therapy market

Several tens of millions of people worldwide require insulin everyday. However, only 2 million of them1 are equipped with insulin pumps, because of their relative complexity and significant cost. Most diabetes patients in Europe and the U.S. on intensive insulin therapy are multiple daily insulin injections (MDI) pen users.

Diabeloop is developing a product for people living with diabetes who do not have access or want to wear an insulin pump. Using self-learning algorithms, DBL-4pen will bring most of the clinical improvement from DBLG1’s closed-loop to insulin pen users, while the overall cost will be significantly lower for the payer.

DBL-4pen: real-time mobile insulin dosing and telemedicine solution

People on multiple daily insulin injections using pens face the challenge of determining the correct amount and timing of insulin depending on individual blood glucose levels, physiology and lifestyle. To reduce hypoglycemia, risks of associated complications while lowering the mental burden of managing diabetes for patients using insulin pens, Diabeloop is developing a unique smartphone app that embeds its self-learning algorithm. The app is connected via Bluetooth® to a connected insulin pen and a CGM that measures blood glucose levels every 5 minutes.

On the way to more automation, DBL-4pen requires a minimal input from users. They only need to enter meals and physical activities into the app. DBL-4pen then automatically recommends the ideal insulin dose in real time, which can be delivered via the pen with no more calculation to do.

In addition, the measured data can be transmitted to the physician, healthcare providers or family members via YourLoops, the cloud based data visualization platform, if the patient so desires.

Strong partnerships to foster interoperability

DBL-4pen complements Diabeloop’s existing product line with another user-friendly and personalized solution that offers more control and customization possibilities regarding diabetes management.

“The integration of insulin pens into hybrid closed-loop systems is a substantial progress. Especially diabetes patients for whom pump therapy is a hurdle can benefit from this new solution. Moreover, diabetes therapy with insulin pens can be a viable solution for different healthcare systems,” said Prof. Hélène Hanaire of the University Hospital of Toulouse.

Diabeloop announces the extension of its partnership with BIOCORP, a French company specialized in the development and manufacturing of medical devices and connected healthcare solutions, to integrate Mallya®, their smart cap for insulin injection pens into Diabeloop’s technological environment.

This and other planned partnerships are expected to create new opportunities to bring Diabeloop’s interoperable technologies to people with diabetes who use insulin pens for their daily multiple injections.

“With DBL-4pen, we are able to bring the power of self-learning algorithms and connectivity to the majority of people who can not or do not want to wear an insulin pump. The combination of smart sensors for insulin pens with our self-learning algorithm gives us the opportunity to integrate a wide range of insulin pens into our hybrid closed-loop system in the future. Our goal is for this innovative solution to be compatible with almost all pens on the market,” said Erik Huneker, CEO and co-founder of Diabeloop.

Dynamic bolus insulin titration doses

DBL-4pen is currently a unique solution for MDI patients to dynamically titrate bolus insulin doses. Personalization is at the core of this solution because the app takes into account both entered meals and physical activities, as well as glucose trend, and uses the entire patient history to fine-tune bolus amounts based on the patient’s response to previous boluses.

“DBL-4pen offers a customized solution for MDI patients that can be integrated into hybrid closed-loop systems. Currently, we are in the process of launching a clinical trial in France to strengthen Diabeloop’s positioning in the insulin pen therapy market,” said Marc Julien, Chief Operating Officer of Diabeloop.

About Diabeloop
Created in 2015, Diabeloop is a high-growth company that offers AI-based, personalized solutions to improve clinical outcomes for people with diabetes while relieving them of their constant mental burden. DBLG1 System, Diabeloop’s first medical device for automated insulin delivery (AID) and DBL-hu, its solution for highly unstable Type 1 diabetes management, are both CE-marked and being deployed in Europe.

A second round of financing of 31 million euros, concluded at the end of 2019, supported the international commercial rollout of DBLG1 iController and Diabeloop’s ambitious R&D program. Today, Diabeloop gathers the personality, passion, and skills of over 160 talented individuals who work hard to improve the quality of life for every person living with diabetes.
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Reference:
1 2021 internal extrapolation based on Seagrove Partners and Simon-Kucher reports data

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Meet Diabeloop at ATTD 2022 (27-30 April 2022, Barcelona, Spain) or contact us for further information at: partnership@diabeloop.fr

SOURCE: EuropaWire

Pr. Pierre-Yves Benhamou: The outcomes observed in 1,000 patients using Diabeloop DBLG1 are, indeed, very good and encouraging

PARIS, 28-Sep-2021 — /EPR HEALTHCARE NEWS/ —

Real-life data confirm clinical and pre-launch data: TIR significantly improved

Today, Diabeloop presents data¹ from a 1,000 patients equipped with DBLG1 System with Accu-Chek Insight insulin pump in Germany. One of the main insights unveiled is an overall Time in optimal glucose Range (70-180 mg/dL) of 73.4% for the whole cohort of patients.

When looking specifically at data² from patients whose HbA1c was available at initiation, it can be observed that Time In Range improved 17.1 percentage points. This result is consistent with results which have been previously published pre-launch³ showing an increase in Time In Range of 16.7 percentage points.

Hypoglycemia reduction a huge factor for an improved quality of life

Data also showed a significant reduction of time spent in hypoglycemia with Time below 70 mg/dL at 1% while time below 54 mg/dL was 0.2%. This outcome surpasses the targets of the 2019 International Consensus.

Feedback of people with diabetes and their caregivers have shown that reducing hypoglycemia is very important. In addition to the life-threatening risks associated with hypoglycemia, discomfort and a decreased quality of life weighs heavily on people experiencing it regularly.

Pre-launch patients
“It (diabetes) had a big impact on my professional life (…) because of my hypoglycemia.”
“I have almost eliminated lows (…), especially at night, which is important!”

Pr. Pierre-Yves Benhamou commented: “The 2019 International Consensus on Time in Range aimed at achieving >70% in range 70-180 mg/dL, <4% below 70 mg/dL and <1% below 54 mg/dL in the majority of people with type 1 diabetes. This means over 16 hours in target range and less than 1 hour below range. The outcomes observed in 1,000 patients using DBLG1 are, indeed, very good and encouraging.”

Patient satisfaction is high

In the 5 countries where DBLG1 System is currently available, feedback from equipped patients has been very positive about its impact on TIR and hypoglycemia, in addition to the system’s ease of use and enhancement of quality of life.

Public social media posts:
“87% TIR, no hypos”
“The result (related to sport): quite conservative but great. No hypo.”
“Very intuitive, little information needed to provide at initiation.”
“I am absolutely delighted. Sometimes I even forget that I have diabetes.
I let it (DBLG1) do the math and success shows.”

Erik Huneker, founder and co-CEO of Diabeloop, who will be presenting the data at EASD4 declared: “Looking at the great results and listening to patient feedback on real-life experiences with our system has been a great reward for our work, and encourages us to make the system even better going forward. We will be able to bring DBGL1 quickly to many more patients in Europe while we keep working on bringing more choices, more interoperability, and more solutions to people with diabetes”.

About Diabeloop
Created in 2015, Diabeloop is a high-growth company that offers AI-based, personalized solutions to improve clinical outcomes for people with diabetes while relieving them of their constant mental burden. DBLG1 System, Diabeloop’s first medical device for automated insulin delivery (AID) and DBL-hu, its solution for highly unstable Type 1 diabetes management, are both CE-marked and being deployed in Europe.

A second round of financing of 31 million euros, concluded at the end of 2019, supported the international commercial rollout of the DBLG1 iController and Diabeloop’s ambitious R&D program. Today, Diabeloop gathers the personality, passion, and skills of more than 100 talented individuals who work hard to improve the quality of life for every person living with insulin-dependent diabetes.

About DBLG1
DBLG1 is a self-learning algorithm that automates and personalizes the treatment of Type 1 diabetes. The therapeutic artificial intelligence contributes to reducing the heavy mental burden associated with this chronic condition. Hosted on a dedicated handset, it is connected to a continuous glucose monitor (CGM) and an insulin pump. It analyzes the data in real time, and decides whether to maintain current settings, adjust or stop basal insulin delivery to avoid a predicted low/high or deliver a bolus to correct a high.

YourLoops, Diabeloop’s data visualization platform allows patients to access data generated by DBLG1 and share them with his/hers healthcare team.

SOURCE: EuropaWire

Het DBLG1-algoritme: eenvoudige installatie, gebruiksvriendelijk, ontworpeyyn voor elk diabetes type 1 profiel

PARIJS, 2-Jun-2021 — /EPR HEALTHCARE NEWS/ — Vanaf het begin heeft Diabeloop innovatieve systemen ontwikkeld om de behandeling van diabetes type 1 te automatiseren en te personaliseren, waarbij altijd rekening wordt gehouden met de optiek van de patiënt. Het Franse bedrijf streeft ernaar autonomie te geven aan mensen die met diabetes type 1 leven en tegelijkertijd de gebruikerservaring te optimaliseren zodat behandeling van diabetes eenvoudiger en minder ingrijpend is. Het DBLG1-algoritme biedt een bevredigende, geautomatiseerde en gepersonaliseerde ervaring met minimale input van de patiënt.

DBLG1: eenvoudige installatie, gebruiksvriendelijk, ontworpen voor elk diabetes type 1 profiel

De zware mentale last op de schouders van mensen met diabetes type 1 verlichten, begint in de eerste fasen van de ervaring met DBLG1. Gebruikers hoeven maar 4 gegevens in te voeren in het allernieuwste DBLG1-algoritme voor een veilige, geautomatiseerde en gepersonaliseerde insuline-afgifte. In de opzetfase voeren gebruikers van DBLG1 hun lichaamsgewicht in, hun totale dagelijkse insulinedosis (TDD), hun gebruikelijke maaltijden (in grammen koolhydraten) en hun basale insulinebehoefte (alleen voor open-loop). Voor het Diabeloop-algoritme zijn geen ingewikkelde berekeningen nodig. Gebruikers hoeven hun maaltijdratio niet uit te zoeken, noch hun insuline gevoeligheidsfactor noch hun insuline actiecurve.

De 4 gegevens die de patiënt in de beginfase invoert, zijn voldoende voor het DBLG1 zelflerend algoritme om te functioneren, te berekenen en de insulinedosis zo nodig elke vijf minuten aan te passen.

“We hebben het DBLG1-algoritme zo ontworpen dat het zo eenvoudig mogelijk in gebruik is voor mensen met diabetes type 1 en gebruikers tegelijkertijd de gelegenheid hebben bepaalde parameters nauwkeuriger in te stellen afhankelijk van hun specifieke behoeften en/of leefstijl. Het algoritme houdt automatisch rekening met eventuele wijzigingen die mensen invoeren. Het DBLG1-algoritme optimaliseert de werking automatisch zonder dat de patiënt hier iets voor hoeft te doen. Wijzigingen verlopen op die manier heel soepel en worden vrijwel “onzichtbaar” voor de gebruikers van het systeem“ – vertelde Yousra Tourki, Head of Algorithms Design bij Diabeloop.

Naast de eerste input biedt het DBLG1 System ook de mogelijkheid aan mensen die met diabetes type 1 leven om de behandeling en beheersing van hun diabetes nauwkeurig in te stellen met behulp van aanpasbare instellingen zoals de agressiviteit van het algoritme, de grenswaarden van hypo’s en hypers en de streefwaarde van de glucosespiegel.

Nicole Wetzels, Trainer voor Roche Diabetes Care in Nederland en gebruikster van het DBLG1 System met Accu-Check Insight, vertelt: “Ik leef al meer dan 42 jaar met diabetes type 1 en ben een paar maanden geleden begonnen met het gebruik van het DBLG1 System met een Accu-Chek insulinepomp. De opzet was heel eenvoudig: de batterij in het apparaat doen, de handset opladen en maar 4 parameters invoeren. Het invoeren van een maaltijd is een van de weinige dingen die ik zelf moet doen en ook dat is heel simpel! Maar ik heb tevens de mogelijkheid het systeem te personaliseren door bepaalde instellingen aan te passen zoals de streefwaarde van de glucosespiegel of de grenswaarden voor de hypo … Met hele kleine acties heb ik hele goede resultaten. Dankzij dit AID-systeem hoef ik niet meer de hele dag bezig te zijn met het beheersen en behandelen van mijn diabetes. Het is net of mijn diabetes type 1 op vakantie is!”

DBLG1 AID-systeem: minimale input van de patiënt nodig

Om de bruikbaarheid van het DBLG1 System te beoordelen heeft Diabeloop een wetenschappelijk onderzoek uitgevoerd op basis van reële gegevens afkomstig uit de klinisch proef (1) die vóór de lancering vanhet systeem is gerealiseerd. Het doel was het analyseren van het aantal instellingswijzingen door mensen die het systeem in het dagelijkse leven gebruiken. In de eerste week dat patiënten het DBLG1 System gebruikten, voerden ze gemiddeld slechts 1.6 instellingswijzigingen uit (± 2.3), en maar 0.2 wijziging (± 0.5) in de laatste week van de proef na 11 weken gebruik.

De belangrijkste conclusie is dat in het dagelijkse leven, wanneer de gebruikers zich niet in een beheerste omgeving bevinden zonder specifieke medische follow-up en/of aanbevelingen voor instellingswijzigingen van hun zorgteam, de mensen uitgerust met het DBGL1 System minimale aanpassingen hoeven uit te voeren om te profiteren van een bevredigende, geautomatiseerde en gepersonaliseerde diabetesbehandeling.

Verdere wetenschappelijke analyse (2) toont de gebruiksvriendelijkheid aan van het Automated Insulin Delivery-systeem van Diabeloop. Deze analyse gaf aan dat in de eerste week, 50% van de mensen die het DBLG1 System gebruikten, geen instellingswijzigingen uitvoerden. Bovendien wijzigden meer dan 85% van de mensen uitgerust met het systeem geen enkele instelling gedurende de 8ste week van gebruik.

Dit bevestigt dat het zelflerend algoritme van Diabeloop vanaf de beginfase de behandeling van diabetes type 1 optimaliseert en minimale input van de patiënt nodig heeft om de vereiste ondersteuning te bieden.

Bernhard Gehr, arts en diabetoloog, Centrum voor Diabetes en Metabole ziekten, gespecialiseerde kliniek m&i Fachklinik Bad Heilbrunn, licht toe: “Ik gebruik het DBLG1 System met de Accu-Chek Insight insulinepomp. De opzet en de eerste handelingen zijn zeer eenvoudig. De eenvoud van de gebruikersinterface maakt snelle en makkelijke invoer van de benodigde informatie mogelijk. Ik ben echt onder de indruk van de prestaties van het DBLG1 System. Vanaf de eerste dag had ik een goede controle over mijn stofwisseling. Ik heb veel meer gemoedsrust aangezien ik veel minder aan mijn diabetes hoef te denken! Dit systeem vereist minder tot vrijwel geen micromanagement van mijn behandeling. Ik was aangenaam verrast over hoe goed het algoritme tijdens de eerste nacht functioneerde, met zo weinig input in de beginfase.”

Met DBLG1 beheersen mensen hun eigen diabetesbehandeling

Het DBLG1 System is gebruiksvriendelijk en kan gepersonaliseerd worden zodat mensen die met diabetes leven verschillende instellingen kunnen beheersen.

In het dagelijkse leven biedt het DBLG1 System mensen de mogelijkheid de aan te passen zodat insuline-afgifte bijgesteld wordt om een hypo of hyper te voorkomen. Een van de onderzoeken (3) van Diabeloop, gepresenteerd op ATTD 2021, onthulde dat een daling van de glucosespiegel streefwaarde over het algemeen een vergelijkbare daling van de gemiddelde glucospiegel tot gevolg heeft. Bijvoorbeeld, -10% van de glucosespiegel streefwaarde leidt tot -10% van de gemiddelde glucosespiegel.

In overeenstemming met de missie van Diabeloop om de zware mentale last op de schouders van mensen met diabetes type 1 te verlichten en hen een ongestoord leven te bieden, bevat het systeem een Zen-modus, ontwikkeld op basis van de ervaringen van patiënten. Deze modus verhoogt tijdelijk de doelwaarde van de bloedsuikerspiegel: om rustig naar de bioscoop te gaan of een vergadering bij te wonen zonder een verstorende hypoglykemie en de bijbehorende waarschuwingssignalen, kunnen gebruikers de Zen-modus aanzetten zodat hun glucosespiegel tijdelijk en voor een door hen ingestelde tijd verhoogd wordt.

Een persoon die het DBLG1 System met Accu-Check Insight insulinepomp gebruikt, vertelde: “Zen-modus is voor al die momenten waarop je je “veiliger” wil voelen: tijdens het autorijden, op school, tijdens een examen.”

Een wetenschappelijk onderzoek (4) geleid door Diabeloop en gepresenteerd op ATTD 2021, toonde aan dat 90 minuten na de activering van de Zen-modus, de impact op de gemiddelde glucosespiegel gestabiliseerd was zonder de hyperglykemie te verlengen.

De conclusie is dat, voor een tijd die door de patiënt wordt bepaald, de Zen-modus de gebruikers uit een hypo houdt en tevens een hyper voorkomt. De Zen-modus leidt tot een lichte verhoging van de gemiddelde glykemie met een zeer beperkte impact op de time-in-range.

Het eenvoudige gebruik van het DBLG1 zelflerend algoritme draagt bij tot een ongecompliceerde diabetesbehandeling en haalt een mentale last van de schouders van mensen die leven met deze chronische ziekte zodat ze ongestoord kunnen leven!

SOURCE: EuropaWire